Boosting: doping without pills for people with paraplegia.

Breaking toes, squeezing testicles, sit on pins, create peeing emergency with a catheter. The methods that circulate are horrible in the stories of boosting, the stimulation of the nervous system and thus rushing blood pressure and heart rate. It is used in the section “high spinal cord injury” of the Paralympic sport. Such  lames, sports technically speaking; suffer from a low heart rate. “It’s doping without pills,” says Martin Moen, the Dutch chief physician in Rio, the spectacular story that always circulates in the British media. In the Dutch Paralympic team, according to the calculation of Moen there are three people with such a high spinal cord injury, above thoracic vertebra 6, it might make sense for them to boost.

Wheelchair rugby is one of the sports in which boosting occurs.

In 2008 at the Beijing Games a questionnaire was handed out among the audience c.q. the risk group. Then  17 per cent admitted to have done sometimes in boosting. Moen: “Incidentally, only three percent in international competition. Fourteen percent had tried it in training. “

According to Moens, there is no reason to believe that Dutch Paralympians do boosting. “It is very rare,” the doctor said. “There have in recent years been tests, 93 in total. Worldwide, it involves a limited number of people. It involves wheeling, hand cycling and wheelchair rugby. From the 93 tests, zero defects have come. “In recent years measures have been taken by the International Paralympic Committee. Blood pressure is measured at rest and later during a match. Moen: “No urine or blood is taken. Just simply measure blood pressure, such as the GP. If the system is stimulated the blood pressure is high, then IPC says: that’s dangerous and risky for your health. There is a risk for heart attack, a stroke or bleeding in the eye. Then you are taken out of the game. But they do not say you have committed a doping offense. They say the health risk for you to play sports is too big. “