084 ENDURANCE TRAINING

CLASSIFICATION BY INTENSITY:

  • Active recovery training
  • Easy endurance training
  • Intensive endurance training
  • Tempo endurance training

ART: active recovery training.
Training to recover after strenuous races or training. Low speed, light resistance and no longer than 1.5 hours.

EET: quiet endurance training.
Is conducted at a leisurely pace. The quiet endurance training. Intensity: low. Fully aerobic. No production of lactate.

IET: intensive endurance training.
This training is more intensive. And thus faster. Intensity: moderate – average. Effort during these workouts in aerobic – anaerobic transition area. Lactate is formed which is completely eliminated by the body.

TET: tempo endurance training.
Intensity: intensive. Anaerobic and aerobic exercise. Just below the  anaerobic threshold. Body is still just able to handle all of the lactate formed.

BREAKDOWN BY FORM:

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In blue indicate in which areas of the lactate curve endurance training occur.

EET and IET

EET and IET

During recovery -, EET – and IET workouts the proportion of fat oxidation in the supply of energy is greatest. The more strenuous the effort the greater the share of the sugar or carbohydrate combustion in the energy supply.

The training zones can be adjusted to the heart rate monitor or power meter. After the training the performance can be checked whether the training command has been performed correctly. These low intensity levels are also crucial in building up the condition and therefore need to be trained specifically. In practice, many cyclists seem always to train too hard and one-sided and especially the EET training and, to a lesser extent, the IET consistently to skip.

Another name for EET- and IET training is ‘LONG SLOW DISTANCE TRAINING’ or LSD training. Those are long training sessions of low intensity that form the basis or foundation of the performance of a cyclist. Recording these LSD – training is the way to keep a good control and especially intensively trained riders to rein in. 30 to 40 percent of these workouts with a cadence of 100 rpm.

The endurance training in relation to the metabolic profile. Each system should be addressed adequately in the training. The proportion of fat oxidation and carbohydrate burning depends on the intensity of the effort. At an intensity at the level of the VO2 max, 90% of the energy is provided by the decomposition of glucose and 10% due to the degradation of fats. At the level of the FTP or the anaerobic threshold, so less intense, 74% of the energy is supplied by the breakdown of glucose and 26% by the fats.

Through recovery -, EET – and IET – workouts the body learns to deal more efficient with energy and the body is also able to store more energy. After a long period of training the body uses more energy by burning fat instead of carbohydrates. This means that the carbs, which are especially needed for intensive efforts, are spared. Carbohydrates are the super petrol which may prove decisive during the final of a race. Fat provides less energy than the combustion of glycogen. When glycogen is depleted and the body must switch to burning fat ‘the hitting the wal’ phenomena occurs. This also arises because the power, so the speed of the combustion process of fat is much lower than with glycogen.

Longer use of fats as fuel, the effort can be sustained longer and the glycogen supply is still large enough to provide energy for the high intensity of the finale of the race and to fight for a good result.

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ART

ACTIVE RECOVERY TRAINING

Recovery training is conducted with low intensity. They last up to 1.5 hours. With a light resistance of 42 x 17, cadence of your choice. So definitely no heavy gear. The HR remains below the 73% of the HR-max. In our example below 146.

The performance improves during recovery after exercise. The term used for this is ‘super compensation’. The day after a tough contest or training the body is often not recovered. On that day to rest or recovery training is wise to accelerate the recovery of the super compensation. Recovery training caused no training stimulus but aims to accelerate recovery after previous heavy exertion.

The red slow muscle fibers

The highly vascularised red muscle fibers have a predominantly aerobic energy. Therefore, the red muscle fibers have a great aerobic and a small anaerobic capacity. The red muscle fibers determine endurance capacity. They work slowly and do not get tired quickly. Because of these properties, an effort on endurance level can be sustained long.

Endurance training is being conducted with a high cadence of 100 rpm or more. So the muscles get used to the high cadence, which is a basic condition to be able to perform well. The choice of the gear depends on the pedaling frequency. In this manner, most of the red slow muscle fibers are optimally trained.

For a EET or IET training the upper and lower limits of the training zone are quite far apart. Train alternately above and below the middle zone. So do not always linger top or bottom of the zone. A well-dosed EET or training IET utilized the entire HR range. Thus use high, middle and low in the HR area.

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Characteristics EET: high gray zone, low in green zone

Energy supply during this training is fully aerobic. No lactate is formed. After a period of training an athlete performs better at the same HR. He can therefore use up longer and more fat for energy.  As a result, he saves his carbohydrate reserves which are necessary for the intensive efforts. This training will prepare the athlete for larger and above all longer performances. The training is also called training of the overall endurance. The cadence is part 100. The race distance will determine the duration of the training.

The EET training is extra long at a low intensity. That means for cyclists training rides from 100 to 200 km. So training from 3 to 6 hours. With the HR between 73-80% of the HR-max. With a HR max of 200, the EET training is between HR: 146 – 160. The IET is between  HR 160 – 174. EET and IER training during these long courses can be combined with each other by alternating intensity blocks. Fat burning is optimally utilized during these workouts.

This doesn’t imply that this type of training costs low energy and thus is light. That’s certainly not true. The speed of well-trained riders at this intensity is often surprisingly high. And after 6 hours they are really exhausted.

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 IET features: high in green zone

The energy supply of this training zone is located in the aerobic – anaerobic transition area.

The aerobic system is already loaded up in the EET area. Any increase in intensity of the exercise is only possible on the basis of anaerobic glycolysis

The lactate which is thereby created in the working muscles is processed elsewhere in the body. There is thus a balance between the synthesis and degradation of the lactic acid, a lactate steady state.

This training enhances the specific endurance. A runner gets a larger running endurance and a cyclist a bigger cycling endurance. The training sessions are long, duration for which the race time or the race distance applies as a guideline. The cadence is partly 100.

The EET and IET are addressed separately in Section: 052 CADENCE TRAINING

TET

TEMPO ENDURANCE TRAINING

Features TET: up into the orange zone

The energy supply is still in the aerobic – anaerobic transition area. However, just at or just below the anaerobic threshold. The aerobic system works maximum by burning fats and carbohydrates. But the aerobic supply of energy is inadequate and anaerobic energy supply must step in. In addition, carbohydrates anaerobically decompose where lactate is formed. Up to a certain level the body is able to eliminate all of the formed lactate.

At the point where the capacity of the body falls short, in order to eliminate lactate, there is no longer any question of a state of equilibrium between synthesis and degradation of lactate. There is  no more lactate steady state. The point where the lactate steady state is exceeded is the anaerobic threshold. Training with intensity up to the anaerobic threshold will result over time into a better performance at the anaerobic threshold. This is especially the form of training in order to bring this threshold at a higher level.

Well-trained athletes can sustain the TET pace about 40 till 60 minutes. During training the TET is carried out in the form of intervals where the work phase is long and the resting phase is relatively short.

The TET workouts are treated separately in the chapter: 040 BIG MOTOR TRAINING